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United States of America


Structure of Educational System
Pre-higher Education System
Higher Education System
Administrative structure of higher education  
Admissions to Higher Education and Recognition



INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS

Types of higher education institutions:

Doctoral Research Universities

Master's (Comprehensive) Universities and Colleges

Baccalaureate Colleges

Associate of Arts Colleges

Specialized Institutions

Postsecondary Vocational and Technical Schools

 

School leaving and higher education credentials:

High School Diploma

Certificate (Sub-bachelor or vocational)

Diploma (Sub-bachelor or vocational)

Associate Degree

Bachelor's Degree

First Professional Degree

Post-bachelor's Diploma/Certificate

Master's Degree

Certificate of Advanced Study

Education Specialist Degree

Doctorate

 

 

STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-higher education:

Duration of compulsory education:

Age of entry: 6

Age of exit: 16

Structure of school system:

Pre-Primary

Type of school providing this education: A) Kindergarten B) Nursery Schools C) Preschool programmes; D) Child/day Care Centres

Length of program in years: 2

Age level from: 3 to: 6

Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Certificates may be given, especially if needed, to prove attendance for entry into Elementary School.

Primary

Type of school providing this education: Elementary School (Grades 1-4 on average, but state and local practice may vary).

Length of program in years: 4

Age level from: 6 to: 10

Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts when necessary for transition to Middle School.

Primary

Type of school providing this education: Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6 or 7)

Age level from: 6 to: 14

Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts when necessary for transition to Secondary School.

Middle

Type of school providing this education: Middle Schools (Grades 4-6, 5-7 or 6-8)

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 10 to: 14

Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts where middle school is a recognized level.

Secondary

Type of school providing this education: High Schools (Grades 7-12 or 8-12)

Length of program in years: 6

Age level from: 13 to: 18

Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma (Regular/Standard, Vocational, Honor/Regents, College/Academic Preparatory)

Junior Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Junior High Schools (Grades 7-8, 7-9 or 8-9)

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 13 to: 15

Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts where secondary education is divided into lower and upper divisions.

Upper Secondary

Type of school providing this education: High Schools, Senior High Schools (Grades 9-12 or 10-12)

Length of program in years: 4

Age level from: 15 to: 18

Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma (Regular/Standard, Vocational, Honor/Regents, College/Academic Preparatory)

School education:

The age of entry to compulsory education in the U.S. varies, according to the state, between 5 and 7 years of age, 6 being the most common. The age at which compulsory schooling ends varies between 16 and 18 years of age, the most common being 16. School education does not end until age 18, or completion of the 12th year of school and those who leave school at the end of compulsory education without earning a secondary (high school) diploma do not receive any certificate or recognition - they are considered to be secondary school drop-outs. Students may graduate a year earlier or late depending on when they entered school. Gifted students may graduate earlier because they skipped grades, and students may graduate later because they  repeat grades. School years are referred to as "grades" in the United States. The length of primary education varies from four to seven years, i.e. grades 1-4, 1-7, etc. Each state determines what grade range constitutes primary education, called "elementary education". According to its length, elementary education may be followed (or not) by a number of years of middle school education (generally three years).  Secondary education takes place in grades 7-12, depending upon the laws and policies of states and local school districts. There is no national structure, curriculum or governing law; all laws and policies are set and enforced by the 50 state governments and the over 14,000 local school districts. All states and school districts have set the secondary school graduation level as the completion of 12th grade, and the common name for the secondary graduation qualification is the High School Diploma. This diploma name covers a variety of awards for different curricula and standards. There are Honors/Regents, academic/college preparatory, vocational, and general/basic high school diploma tracks. There are a statewide minimum course requirement and other graduation requirements in each State which usually correspond to the general/basic track. Vocational and academic/college preparatory or honors/Regents diplomas usually have additional set curricular requirements and/or standards which aspiring graduates must meet or exceed. In addition, many US secondary school districts and private schools allow students to participate in the Advanced Placement (AP) programme of the College Board. This programme allows qualified students to take college level introductory courses in selected subjects taught by certified faculty. Examinations are offered in each AP subject at the end of an academic year; a score of 3 or higher generally results in universities awarding advanced standing in that subject - exempting the student from distribution requirements.There are currently over 35 AP subjects with more being planned. A growing number of public and private secondary schools also offer the International Baccalaureate (IB) as an optional track; completion of IB requirements usually requires an additional summer or semester of study beyond the 12th year. The contents of an individual student's programme at any grade level or upon obtaining a diploma or an online RN to BSN degree are contained in the record of studies called a Transcript. Transcripts are official documents authenticated with the seal of the school or institution and signed by the registrar.

Higher education:

Higher education in the U.S. is also called postsecondary education, but the latter term also refers to all formal education beyond secondary school, whether higher education (defined as degree-granting education) or not. Postsecondary education is broadly divided into two different sectors: postsecondary vocational education and training, which is non-degree but can produce some transferable credits under certain circumstances; and higher education, which includes studies undertaken in degree-granting institutions for academic credit. However, the U.S. higher education system is not legally organized into separate university and non-university sub-systems as are some other national systems, but is comprehensive. It is a diverse and autonomous community of publicly and privalely supported institutions.  Current data indicate that there are 6,479 postsecondary institutions, including 4,182 non-degree institutions. Of the degree-granting higher education institutions, some 1,732 award only the  associate degree plus sub-bachelor's certificates and diplomas; 702 award only the bachelor's degree; 1,094 award degrees and certificates beyond the bachelor's degree but not the research doctorate; and 654 institutions award the research doctorate. The United States does not use an official classification or typology for its higher education institutions. While different institutions offer varying levels of degrees, U.S. accreditation policies result in degrees at any given level adhering to certain minimum standards regardless of the institution that grants them. The privately derived but popular Carnegie Classification organizes U.S. institutions according to different schemes. For more information, see: http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/Classification/  The U.S. higher education system is characterized by accessibility, diversity, and autonomy and is known for both its size and quality. The federal government has no jurisdiction or authority over the recognition of educational institutions, members of the academic professions, programmes or curricula, or degrees or other qualifications. Nearly all U.S. postsecondary institutions are licensed, or chartered, by a state or municipal government to operate under the ownership of either a government (if public) or a private corporation (if independent), and may be for-profit or not-for-profit enterprises. Religious institutions are considered independent, or private.  Quality assurance is achieved via the system of  voluntary accreditation by specific accrediting agencies that are recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and meet the standards for membership in the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Accreditation is a self-regulating process of quality control engaged in by the U.S. postsecondary education community to ensure minimum standards of academic capability, administrative competence, and to promote mutual recognition of qualifications within the system. Six (6) regional accreditation associations set minimum standards for institutions chartered in the states of their respective jurisdictions. In addition, there are recognized accrediting agencies for specialized institutions and programmes. While all recognized and accredited institutions are licensed or chartered by state governments, states vary greatly in the degree of supervision and quality control that they exercise, and there is relatively limited reciprocity of recognition across state borders. Accreditation by recognized agencies, therefore, remains the primary means of ensuring academic and institutional quality and the mutual acceptance of credits and qualifications across and outside the United States.

Academic year:

Classes from: Sep to: Jun

Languages of instruction: English

Stages of studies:

Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):

Non-university level:

There is no legal distinction between "university level" and "non-university level" higher education. The level of studies is delineated by the level of qualification offered in a specific programme rather than by type of institution offering it. Educational programmes corresponding to "non-university level technical/vocational post-secondary studies" would include all technical and occupational programmes that lead to a degree, diploma or certificate below the Bachelor's degree. Education at this level would include (1) all institutions that only award qualifications under the Bachelor's degree; (2) programmes leading to awards under the Bachelor's degree offered at institutions that also award higher degrees.

 

University level studies:

University level first stage: Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Advanced Certificate, First Professional Degree:

The Associate degree is the first academic or professional degree that can be awarded in U.S. postsecondary education. Holders of this degree may apply to enter higher degree programmes at the Bachelor's level, but are not qualified to apply directly for advanced (graduate) studies programmes. Programmes of study for this degree are usually designed to take 2 years of full-time study, but some take longer to complete. Those who pursue this degree on a part-time basis also take longer than 2 years to complete their studies. The Associate degree may be awarded in the liberal arts and general studies as an academic qualification or it may be awarded in a professional occupational field. Some professional career programmes at the  Associate level are terminal vocational programmes that do not lead to further study, while others do so. Associate degree programmes generally fulfil 2 years of the course requirements needed for a Bachelor's degree. Credit for Associate degree studies is usually transferable to Bachelor's degree programmes, especially where transfer agreements have been established between or among institutions.   The Bachelor's degree is the second academic degree that can be awarded in U.S. postsecondary education, and is one of two undergraduate (first) degrees that qualify a student to apply to programmes of advanced (graduate) study (the other such degree is the first-professional degree). Programmes of study for this degree are designed to take between 4 and 5 years, depending on the field of study. Part-time students may take longer to complete the degree requirements. Honours programmes are offered by many institutions that award the Bachelor's degree. These generally require the completion of additional requirements such as preparation of an undergraduate thesis, honours paper or project, advanced coursework, or special examinations. Advanced certificates requiring a year or less of study following (and sometimes accompanying) completion of a Bachelor's are sometimes awarded to signify a concentration in a sub-specialization or completion of a related set of competences.  First professional degrees comprise a limited number of second first degrees. Students are only admitted to first professional degree programmes after completing most, or all, of a Bachelor's degree programme in another subject. Thus, first-professional degrees are considered graduate-level degrees for purposes of admissions and student financial assistance. The study content of the first professional degree programmes is undergraduate in nature and the degrees are prerequisites for entry-level access to certain regulated professions. Confusion sometimes arises because several first professional degrees use the term 'doctor' in the title even though they are not advanced research degrees. First professional degrees are awarded in Medicine (MD), Dentistry (DDS/DMD), Veterinary Medicine (DVM), Osteopathic Medicine (DO), Optometry (OD), Paediatry (DPM), Chiropractic (DC), Pharmacy (D.Pharm), Divinity (M.Div), Rabbinics (MHL/Rav), and Law (JD).

University level second stage: Master's Degree, Post-Master's Degree/Certificate, Diploma/Certificate, Degree of Education Specialist:

The Master's degree represents the second stage of higher education and is the first advanced (graduate) degree. U.S. Master's degrees may be taught (without thesis) or research (with thesis) and may be awarded in academic or professional fields. Most Master's degrees are designed to take 2 years of full-time study, although the time may vary depending upon the subject, the preparation achieved by the student at the undergraduate level, the structure of the programme, and whether the degree is pursued on a full- or a part-time basis. Research-based Master's degrees generally require completion of a series of advanced course and seminar requirements, comprehensive examinations, and an independent thesis.  Non-research Master's degrees generally require completion of a special project as well as coursework and examinations. Both types of Master's degree also require the satisfaction of special requirements (such as linguistic or quantitative skill) or a combination. U.S. awards that fall between the Master's and the research doctorate may be of several types, but all of them fall within the second stage of U.S. higher education. Examples of awards given at this level include the degree of Education Specialist (E.Sp. or Ed.S.) and Certificates and Diplomas of Advanced Study (C.A.E., D.A.E.).

University level third stage: Research Doctorate:

The Research Doctorate represents the third and highest stage of higher education in the United States and may be awarded in academic disciplines and some professional fields of study. This degree is not awarded by examination or coursework only, but requires demonstrated mastery of the chosen subject and the ability to conduct independent, original research. Doctoral programmes require intensive study and research in at least one subfield and professional level competence in several others. Following a series of research seminars designed to prepare the individual research proposal, come candidate examinations (covering at least two subfields in addition to the field of research focus, one of which must be in a subject outside the doctoral student's own faculty but related to his/her research). If the candidate examinations are passed at a satisfactory standard (excellent or higher), the student is advanced to candidacy for the doctorate and selects a research committee of senior faculty who will approve the dissertation topic, monitor progress, and examine the student when the research is finished. The conduct of research and preparation of the dissertation can take anywhere from one to several years depending on the chosen subject, available research funding, and the location of the research. When the dissertation is finished and approved as a document by the chair of the research committee, that individual convenes the full committee plus any outside faculty and public guests and presides over the candidate's oral defense of the dissertation. An unanimous vote of the research committee and examiners is generally required to award the doctorate. Most doctoral degrees take at least 4 or 5 years of full-time study and research after the award of a Bachelor's degree or at least 2 to 3 years following a Master's degree. The actual time to obtain the degree varies depending upon the subject and the structure of the programme. Research Doctorates are awarded in the academic disciplines and for theoretical research in some professional fields. The most common of such degrees is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). There are a variety of equivalent degree titles used in some institutions and disciplines.

 

Teacher education:

Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers

Requirements for education and certification (licensure) of early childhood (nursery, kindergarten, preschool) and elementary (primary) teachers are set by state governments which require multiple exams (subject matter, etc.) prior to entering teacher education and again following completion of teacher education but prior to certification. While state regulations vary, there is a growing uniformity inspired in part by the federal No Child Left Behind law's requirements for having a highly qualified teaching staff. The basic requirement is completion of a prescribed programme of studies at the undergraduate (bachelor's) level in order to qualify for entry-level certification, plus satisfactory completion of a supervised practicum and the passing of qualifying examinations. Pre-professional undergraduate studies must be completed at an accredited institution in nearly all states. While the initial certification may be achieved with a bachelor's degree, most states offer higher levels of certification based on experience and additional education, and many teachers at this level already possess, or soon earn, a master's degree. Continuing professional education is required in order to maintain certification.

Training of secondary school teachers

The basic pre-certification requirements for secondary teachers are the same as for elementary school teachers. A major difference is that secondary school teachers are certified as competent in one or more academic or vocational subjects and spend their careers concentrating on these subjects, whereas elementary school teachers - especially for the lower grades - may be comprehensively certified to teach the full primary course or may specialize, particularly if teaching in the more differentiated upper elementary/middle school grades. All States certify teachers according to subject specializations as well as grade levels/ranges. Special education teachers are trained in most States in specialized programmes at both the undergraduate and graduate levels and are also separately certified. Special education teachers are also certified according to specialty, e.g. education of the deaf, education of the visually impaired, etc. as well as the degree of severity of the handicap with which they are trained to work. While the minimum academic requirement is a Bachelor's degree in special education or a related field (such as developmental psychology), most teachers possess a Master's degree and many earn a higher qualification called an Education Specialist degree. Specialized non-instructional personnel must also be certified in most U.S. States; they include school administrators, school counsellors, school health personnel (psychologists, nurses), school librarians, supervisory teachers and curriculum specialists.

Training of higher education teachers

State law varies regarding the requirements for faculty in public postsecondary education, but public faculty are not considered civil servants and the responsibility for determining the academic and professional standards and requirements for faculty positions and for recruitment and promotion rest with the individual institution and its faculty, department, or school. State law, even for public institutions, is confined to ensuring that institutions do not discriminate in hiring or violate other employment or labour laws. Requirements that institutions set may vary depending on the level at which the faculty are expected to teach, the subject or field to be taught, whether research is to be conducted, whether a professional licence or qualification is required, and whether the position is full- or part-time and tenure-track. Accredited institutions also follow any faculty standards set by the regional accrediting association to which they belong and any standards set by the association that accredits programmes in a particular field. Higher education faculty are expected to possess the necessary expertise and qualifications to teach and, where applicable, to conduct research and consult in the discipline or professional field of their specialization. The general requirement is either a terminal research degree (PhD or equivalent) in the subject of specialization or, for some professional and clinical faculty, the appropriate professional qualification plus a record of successful practice and applied research.

 

Non-traditional studies:

Distance higher education

Distance education is considered to be a vehicle for delivering education to persons whose location, circumstances or work make remote links necessary or convenient. It is not considered to be a separate type of education. Rather, distance education is considered to be a modality of instruction that differs from traditional campus-based instruction but is no less legitimate. There is rapid growth in educational programmes at all levels delivered via radio, television, satellite downlink stations, videos, computer terminals and other means. Many programmes are offered for credit and lead to Certificates, Diplomas and Degrees; others are designed for leisure studies, personal enrichment or specific work-related education and training. Distance education programmes are accredited by recognized associations and the good programmes benefit from significant recent advances in designing, implementing and monitoring these learning environments and their support tools.

Lifelong higher education

Frequently called continuing education. Institutions operate specific continuing education programmes, some very extensive and parallel to regular institutional degree offerings, whilst others are short or specialized programmes. Continuing education may be structured to lead to Certificates, Diplomas or Degrees, or unstructured and used to provide general and leisure study opportunities. Some continuing education is offered through distance learning methods while other programmes are offered at an institution or provided at a branch site. When offered in order to provide further education and training for professionals who already hold basic qualifications, it is usually called continuing professional education. Credit for work completed in such programmes may be recognized and accepted by regular higher education authorities through policies developed by institutions, and it is also recognized and accepted by state licensing authorities and professional associations.

Higher education training in industry

This is considered a specific form of continuing professional education and is referred to as employer-sponsored training. Programmes are offered by employers or through contract by postsecondary institutions, professional associations, unions or consulting organizations. Education or training may be provided at the work site or elsewhere. Continuing professional education or training ranges in length and depth from short courses intended to refresh or introduce new skills up to full degree programmes. Credit for work completed in such programmes may be recognized and accepted by regular higher education authorities through policies developed by institutions. A specific form of employer-sponsored training of major interest to many U.S. postsecondary institutions, especially at the sub-Bachelor's degree level, is training received in the U.S. armed forces and how to award credit for it when personnel re-enter civilian life. Detailed guidelines have been jointly developed by U.S. institutions and the armed forces.

Other forms of non-formal higher education

Many varieties of education and training opportunities exist that are not formally structured, do not result in recognized awards and are not intended to result in transferable credit or professional recognition. They include courses and programmes provided by libraries, museums, parks and recreation authorities, clubs and others that are intended for members or the public. Some programmes provided by employers are not intended to result in formal recognition, such as informal seminars and presentations on topics related to work issues and products.

 

 

NATIONAL BODIES

Administration & co-ordination:

Responsible authorities:

United States Department of Education

Head: Margaret Spelling, Secretary of Education

400 Maryland Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20202
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4012000

Fax: +1(202) 4013130

EMail: customerservice@inet.ed.gov

WWW: http://www.ed.gov

 

Role of governing body: The Executive Branch agency responsible for federal education programmes of all types and levels and headed by the Secretary of Education, a Presidential Cabinet appointment. The federal role in education is strictly limited by the US Constitution and by federal statutes. The Department of Education does not function as a governing body but operates in cooperation with state and local authorities.

 

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB)

Head: Richard T. Ingram, President

One Dupont Circle, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2968400

Fax: +1(202) 2237053

WWW: http://www.agb.org

 

Role of governing body: The AGB is a membership organization of the governing boards of higher education institutions, both public and private. It does not exercise control over these boards, but rather represents their interests and provides information and training materials.

 

Association of Community College Trustees (ACCT)

Head: Kenneth Burke, Chair

Administrative officer: J. Noah Brown, President and CEO

1233 20th Street, NW, Suite 605
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7754667

Fax: +1(202) 2231297

EMail: acct@acctinfo.org

WWW: http://www.acct.org

 

Role of governing body: The ACCT functions as a representational organization for members of governing boards of public community colleges and state and local community college systems.

 

Education Commission of the States (ECS)

Head: Mike Huckabee, Chairman

Administrative officer: Piedad F. Robertson, President

700 Broadway, Suite 1200
Denver, Colorado 80203-3460
United States of America

Tel: +1(303) 2993600

Fax: +1(303) 2968332

EMail: ecs@ecs.org

WWW: http://www.ecs.org

 

Role of governing body: Coordinates State government authorities in each State.

 

National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE)

Head: Diane Fladmo, President

277 South Washington Street, Suite 100
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
United States of America

Tel: +1(703) 6844000

Fax: +1(703) 8362313

EMail: boards@nasbe.org

WWW: http://www.nasbe.org

 

Role of governing body: Coordinates State Boards of Education.

 

National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC)

Administrative officer: Roy Einreinhofer, xecutive Officer

22 Bates Rd., PMB 134
Mashpee, MA 02649-3267
United States of America

Tel: +1(508) 5398844

Fax: +1(508) 5398868

EMail: nasdtec@comcast.net

WWW: http://www.nasdtec.org

 

Role of governing body: NASDTEC coordinates and represents the various state and territorial officials and offices responsible for administering the laws and regulations pertaining to the qualifications, licensure, and professional performance of school teachers, administrators and other personnel.

 

National Association of State Directors of Vocational and Technical Education (NASDVTEC)

444 North Capitol Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7370303

Fax: +1(202) 7371106

EMail: kgreen@nasdvtec.org

 

Role of governing body: NASDVTEC coordinates and represents the state and territorial officials and offices that oversee vocational education programmes.

 

State Higher Education Executive Officers Network (SHEEO)

Head: Diane Barrans, Chair

3035 Center Green Drive, Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301-2251
United States of America

Tel: +1(303) 5411600

Fax: +1(303) 5411639

EMail: sheeo@sheeo.org

WWW: http://www.sheeo.org

 

Role of governing body: SHEEO coordinates and represents the state and territorial officials, offices and commissions that oversee postsecondary (higher) education institutions and programmes.

 

United States Network for Education Information (USNEI)

Head: Stephen Hunt, Manager

National Library of Education
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202-5523
United States of America

Tel: +1(800) 4241616

Fax: +1(202) 2056688

EMail: usnei@ed.gov

WWW: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/edlite-index.html

 

Role of governing body: USNEI is the official US information service on matters of student and professional mobility, recognition of institutions and qualifications and related issues. USNEI serves as the US ENIC under the Lisbon Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education Region and also cooperates with information centres outside the European Region.

 

American Council on Education (ACE)

Head: David Ward, President

Administrative officer: Madeleine F. Green, Vice-President

International relations: Barbara Turlington, Director, International Education

One Dupont Circle NW
Washington, DC 20036-1193
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 9399300

Fax: +1(202) 6592212

EMail: comments@ace.nche.edu

WWW: http://www.acenet.edu

 

 

American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO)

Head: Jerome Sullivan, Executive Director

1 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 520
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2939161

Fax: +1(202) 8728857

EMail: info@aacrao.org;sullivanj@aacrao.org

WWW: http://www.aacrao.org

 

 

American Association of Community Colleges (AACC)

Head: Michael B. McCall, Chair

One Dupont Circle NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7280200

Fax: +1(202) 8332467

WWW: http://www.aacc.nche.edu

 

 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU)

Head: John D. Welty, Chair

Administrative officer: Constantine Curris, President

1307 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20005
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2937070

Fax: +1(202) 2965819

WWW: http://www.aascu.org

 

 

Association of American Universities (AAU)

Head: Martin Jischke, Chair

Administrative officer: Nils Hasselmo, President

1200 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 550
Washington, DC 20005
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4087500

Fax: +1(202) 4088184

WWW: http://www.aau.edu

 

 

NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Head: Mariam Assefa, President

Administrative officer: Marlene M. Johnson, Executive Director

1307 New York Avenue NW, 8th floor
Washington, DC 20005-4701
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7373699

Fax: +1(202) 7373657

EMail: inbox@nafsa.org

WWW: http://www.nafsa.org

 

 

CQAIE: The Center for Quality Assurance in International Education

Head: Carol Bobby, Chair

Administrative officer: Marjorie Peace Lenn, Executive Director

One Dupont Circle NW, Suite 515
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2936104

Fax: +1(202) 2939177

EMail: CQAIE@CQAIE.org

WWW: http://www.cqaie.org

 

 

The College Board

Head: Gaston Caperton, President

45 Columbus Avenue
New York, NY 10023
United States of America

Tel: +1(212) 7138000

Fax: +1(212) 7138282

EMail: internatl@collegeboard.org

WWW: http://www.collegeboard.com

 

 

Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)

Head: Judith Eaton, President

One Dupont Circle, NW
Suite 510
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 9556126

Fax: +1(202) 9556129

EMail: chea@chea.org

WWW: http://www.chea.org

 

 

Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE)

Head: Michael Stohl, Chair

7 Custom House Street, 3rd Floor
Portland, ME 04101
United States of America

Tel: +1(207) 5537600

Fax: +1(207) 5537699

EMail: studyinfo@ciee.org

WWW: http://www.ciee.org

 

 

Institute of International Education (IIE)

Head: Thomas S. Johnson, Chairman

Administrative officer: Allan Goodman, President and CEO

809 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017-3580
United States of America

Tel: +1(212) 9845400

Fax: +1(212) 9845452

WWW: http://www.iie.org

 

 

National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC)

Head: Michael F. Adams, Chair

Administrative officer: Peter Magrath, President

1307 New York Avenue, NW
Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005-4722
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4786040

Fax: +1(202) 4786046

WWW: http://www.nasulgc.org

 

 

National Education Association (NEA)

Head: Reg Weaver, President

1201 16th Street NW
Washington, DC 20036-3290
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 8334000

Fax: +1(202) 8227974

WWW: http://www.nea.org

 

 

American federation of Teachers (AFT)

Head: Edward J. McElroy, President

555 New Jersey Avenue, NW
Washington DC 20001
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 8794400

WWW: http://www.aft.org

 

 

American Association of University Presidents (AAUP)

Administrative officer: Roger Bowen, General Secretary

1012 Fourteenth Street, NW, Suite 500
Washington DC 20005
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7375900

Fax: +1(202) 7375526

EMail: msnyder@aaup.org

WWW: http://www.aaup.org

 

 

 

ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION

Admission to non university higher education studies

Name of secondary school credential required: High School Diploma

Minimum score/requirement: High school marks depend on standards and policies of individual institutions.

For entry to: All programmes

Alternatives to credentials:

The Certificate of General Educational Development (GED Certificate) is legally recognized in all states as equivalent to the High School Diploma. It is a certificate awarded to adult learners who did not complete secondary school on schedule and who enter, and complete, a special programme of studies equivalent to senior high school. In addition, institutions may choose to make exceptions to standard requirements on an individual case basis and to award advanced credit for other education, training, or experience. In some states, public 2-year colleges (community colleges, vocational or technical institutes) are required by law to admit any applicant. This practice is called open admission. Institutions following open admission policies tend to monitor the progress of students and set clear requirements for course sequences and graduation in order to ensure that outcome standards remain acceptably high. High failure and dropout rates are not uncommon in open admissions situations.

Entrance exams required:

Scholastic Aptitute Test (SAT) and American College Testing (ACT) Examination (required by some states) scored by private corporations. A fee is required from the student. Achievement tests (SAT II) may be required or accepted in specific subject areas. Advanced Placement (AP) examinations are also considered in awarding advanced credit.

Numerus clausus/restrictions:

There are no data at the national level on any institutional restrictions. Any such restrictions are determined by the individual institutions in response to local conditions and they would need to be consulted directly. Any state restrictions would also need to be checked with the appropriate state authority. Institutions may occassionally impose restrictions on admissions, including specific grade and course requirements, in heavily oversubscribed subjects such as medical education or in subjects where professional licensing or accrediting requirements require such standards.

Other admission requirements:

No requirements are established at the national government level. Individual institutions may impose additional requirements such as specific secondary courses and course level; specific grades or grade-point averages; graduating class rank; standardized test scores; recommendations; entrance examinations, auditions, or portfolios; interviews; an foreign credential evaluations (when applicable).

Admission to university-level studies

Name of secondary school credential required: High School Diploma

Minimum score/requirement: Required high school marks depend on standards and policies of individual institutions, Students are usually expected to have completed an academic preparatory or honors high school diploma and are increasingly showing completion of AP or IB courses.

For entry to: All programmes

Alternatives to credentials: The Certificate of General Educational Development (GED Certificate) is legally recognized in all states as equivalent to the High School Diploma. It is awarded to adult learners who have not completed secondary school on schedule and who enter and complete a special programme of studies equivalent to senior high school. In addition, institutions may choose to make exceptions to standard requirements on an individual case basis and to award advanced credit for other education, training, or experience. In some cases, public institutions may be required by law to admit any high school graduate who is a state resident. Institutions following such admissions policies tend to monitor the progress of students and set clear requirements for course sequences and graduation in order to ensure that outcome standards remain acceptably high. Many students and schools participate in the College Board Advanced placement (AP) Program. It provides university-level instruction to secondary students in 33 different subjects. Completion of a subject course and passage of the relevant AP examination with a "3" or higher (graded on a 1-5 scale) generally results in the award of undergraduate credit for the completed AP course. Many students present AP credits at matriculation in addition to high school diplomas. The International Baccalaureate (IB) is offered as an option in many U.S. secondary schools. This programme follows the standard IB framework and usually requires students to complete an additional semester or academic year beyond the 12th grade as well as sit the IB examinations. The IB diploma may be awarded in addition to, or instead of, the high school diploma.

Entrance exams required: Scholastic Aptitute Test (SAT) and American College Testing (ACT) examination (required by some states) scored by private corporations. A fee is required from the student. Achievement tests (SAT II) may be required or accepted in specific subject areas. Advanced Placement (AP) examinations are also considered in awarding advanced credit.

Numerus clausus/restrictions: There are no data at the national level on any institutional restrictions. Any such restrictions are determined by individual institutions in response to local conditions and they would need to be consulted directly. Some states have restricted admissions of students who are not state residents into public institutions. Institutions may occasionally impose restrictions on admissions, including specific grade and course requirements, in heavily oversubscribed subjects such as medical education or in subjects where professional licensing or accrediting require such standards.

Other admission requirements: Access to higher education is not a constitutionally guaranteed civil right. Therefore, admissions decisions are made by the institution and its faculty on a case-by-case basis upon receipt of completed applications for admission by prospective students. Individual institutions may impose additional requirements such as specific secondary courses and course level; specific grades or grade-point averages; graduating class rank; standardized test scores; recommendations; entrance examinations, auditions, or portfolios; interviews; an foreign credential evaluations (when applicable).

Foreign students admission

Definition of foreign student: A foreign student is defined in the United States as a person entering the U.S. to pursue a programme of studies on a non-immigrant (temporary) visa and who does not hold a U.S. passport (is not a citizen) or intend to remain in the United States after completing the programme. Under federal law, foreign students thus fall under the classification of "non-resident aliens".

Quotas: U.S. higher education is an open and  diverse system welcoming applicants from all over the world. As with all other admissions matters, the admission of foreign students is governed by the individual institutions. Admission practice varies according to institution.

Entry regulations: The first requirement for a prospective foreign student is to determine the institution or institutions to which he or she wishes to apply for admission. Once an institution is contacted, the student must follow its individual requirements for the admissions process. Foreign applicants must also demonstrate, to the satisfaction of institutional authorities, the following: (a) that they possess appropriate prior preparation for the course of study and level which they seek to enter in the U.S. institution; (b) adequate proficiency in English; (c) proof of the ability to pay their tuition and fees for their course of study before being allowed into the United States; and d) proof of a domicile in their home country to which they will return.  U.S. overseas advising centers and individual institutions can advise prospective students about costs and methods of payment, as well as assistance and scholarship programmes. If the U.S. institution is satisfied that the foreign applicant has met its regular admissions requirements and has met these additional foreign student requirements, it may issue the foreign applicant a Certificate of Eligibility (Form I-20). This document is accepted by U.S. Consulates as evidence of admission to a valid U.S. institution and programme and as a formal request to issue a student visa. Visa requirements for entry into the United States for study and other purposes (work, exchanges, travel, etc.) have undergone changes since the events of September 11, 2001. It is important for prospective visitors, students and workers to consult the closest US Consulate or Overseas Educational Advising Office in their countries to obtain the latest and most accurate information on policies and regulations. Also, a special federal government web site for visa information has been created: http://travel.state.gov/visa/visa_1750.html

Health requirements: Vary. Some state and  individual institutions have requirements; foreign applicants should inquire about requirements to the institution to which they are applying.

Language requirements: Students whose native language is not English are usually required to sit for the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language).

Application procedures:

Apply to individual institution for entry to: Any programme of study. The individual institution must be consulted as to these requirements.

Recognition of studies & qualifications:

Studies pursued in home country (System of recognition/accreditation): U.S. accreditation is based on a non-governmental, independent, peer review voluntary process. No federal government body oversees the quality control of Institutions, but the U.S. Department of Education does recognize approved accrediting agencies for the purpose of accrediting institutions that are allowed to participate in U.S. student assistance programmes. Institutional accreditation is through regional and national  accreditation agencies. Programme accreditation is through specialized programme and professional accreditation agencies. Accrediting agencies, both regional and national, accredit all types of institutions, including public, private non-profit, private for-profit, and distance institutions. Detailed information an accrediting agencies, standards, policies, and international cooperation can be obtained from the Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) at http://ww.chea.org. Accreditation by a recognized accrediting agency is viewed under international law as the U.S. equivalent of national recognition.

Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):

Association of International Credential Evaluators (AICE)

P.O. Box 6756, 280 South Beverly Drive, Suite 408
Beverly Hills, CA 90212
United States of America

Tel: +1(310) 5503305

Fax: +1(888) 2632423

EMail: info@aice-eval.org

WWW: http://www.aice-eval.org

 

Services provided & students dealt with: Membership organization of individual credential evaluation services. Other credential evaluation services may be located via the Internet. Credential evaluation services provide comparability statements for holders of foreign qualifications to present to educational institutions, employers and state licensure boards (for regulated professions).

 

National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES)

P.O. Box 3665
Culver City, CA 90231-3665
United States of America

Tel: +1(310) 2589451

Fax: +1(310) 3427086

EMail: naces@ierf.org

WWW: http://www.naces.org

 

Services provided & students dealt with: Membership organization of individual credential evaluation services. Other credential evaluation services may be located via the Internet. Credential evaluation services provide comparability statements for holders of foreign qualifications to present to educational institutions, employers and state licensure boards (for regulated professions).

 

United States Network for Education Information (USNEI)

Head: Stephen Hunt, Manager

International Affairs Staff
US Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20202
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4013710

Fax: +1(202) 4012508

EMail: stephen.hunt@ed.gov

WWW: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/edlite-index.html

 

Services provided & students dealt with: Provides information on the U.S. and foreign systems of education, and operates a referral service to route inquiries to the appropriate agencies, etc; serves as the U.S. ENIC information center under the terms of Lisbon Convention.

 

Other information sources on recognition of foreign studies: The recognition of foreign educational qualifications is carried out by the following competent authorities: (1) academic institutions, for student applying for admission to studies; (2) state or territorial licensing boards, for persons seeking to practise a regulated profession; and (3) hiring employers, for individuals seeking work in non-regulated occupations. While some authorities are able to make decisions on foreign qualifications themselves, most rely on credential evaluation services which provide comparability assessments of foreign qualifications to individuals, institutions, employers, and government boards and agencies. The profession of credential evaluation is currently unregulated, and many credential evaluation services can be located only via Internet search engines. Two associations of credential evaluation services have membership standards: AICE and NACES.  Individual institutions, under law and policy, have autonomy to make admissions and placement decisions. It includes the power to decide whether to recognize or credit the degrees, diplomas, certificates, credit and research carried out at other institutions.  Information on credential evaluation services is provided on the USNEI web site.

Special provisions for recognition:

For access to non-university post-secondary studies: Individual U.S. institutions can decide whether to recognize or credit the degrees, diplomas, certificates, credit and research done at other institutions. Individuals may appeal admissions and other decisions via the appeals route set up by the individual institution.

For access to university level studies: Individual U.S. institutions can decide whether to recognize or credit the degrees, diplomas, certificates, credit and research done at other institutions. Individuals may appeal admissions and other decisions via the appeals route set up by the individual institution.

For access to advanced studies and research: Individual U.S. institutions can decide whether to recognize or credit the degrees, diplomas, certificates, credit and research done at other institutions. Individuals may appeal admissions and other decisions via the appeals route set up by the individual institution.

For the exercise of a profession: Special requirements may exist that must be met by foreign citizens who wish to practise a profession in the U.S. Such requirements may be set by state law or professional regulations or both. Foreign students or professionals interested in U.S. laws and regulations regarding practising a profession should contact the appropriate professional association and licensing authority in the state in which they are interested. Professional associations may accredit education and training programmes in their respective fields, control membership and control or advise state authorities on licensure of practitioners, set standards and policies for professional conduct and provide or approve continuing education and training opportunities. Most state governments also regulate certain professions as provided for under state law, and the states either maintain offices to monitor regulated professions or delegate that responsibility to the state chapter of a recognized professional association. Satisfactory completion of specific pre-professional education programmes is often required in order for an individual to be eligible to enter a profession, and many professions and state licensing agencies also require satisfactory performance in state examinations, supervised practica, or both. There are often other requirements.

References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies

Title: Directory of resources for international, cultural and educational exchanges (regularly updated)

Publisher: United States Information Agency

Title: EducationUSA (http://educationusa.state.gov/)

Publisher: US Department of State

Title: Entering H.E. in the U.S: A guide for students from other countries (regularly updated)

Publisher: The College Board

Title: Graduate study in the U.S.: A guide for prospective international students (regularly updated)

Publisher: Council of Graduate Schools

Title: If you want to study in U.S.(regularly updated and reprinted)

Publisher: United States Information Agency

Title: NAFSA's International Student Handbook: A guide to university study in the U.S.A (regularly updated)

Publisher: NAFSA - Association of International Educators

Title: The College Handbook: Foreign Student Supplement (Annual edition)

Publisher: The College Board

 

STUDENT LIFE

Main student services at national level

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

US Department of State
301 Fourth Street, SW, Room 234
Washington, DC 20547
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 6194360

Fax: +1(202) 4015914

EMail: academic@pd.state.gov

WWW: http://exchanges.state.gov/

 

Category of services provided: Special services/Centre for foreign students

Services available to foreign Students: Yes

 

The College Board, Office of International Education

Higher Education
3700 Crestwood Parkway
Suite 700
Duluth GA 30096
United States of America

Tel: +1(800) 9274302

Fax: +1(678) 3803315

EMail: info@atl.collegeboard.com

WWW: http://www.collegeboard.com/highered/index.html

 

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services; Special services/Centre for foreign students

Services available to foreign Students: Yes

 

United States Network for Education Information (USNEI)

International Affairs Staff/OUS, US Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20202-8401
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4013710

Fax: +1(202) 4012508

EMail: usnei@ed.gov

WWW: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/edlite-index.html

 

Category of services provided: Special services/Centre for foreign students

Services available to foreign Students: Yes

 

National student associations and unions

United States Students Association (USSA)

815 16th Street NW, 4th Floor
Washington, DC 20005
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 3478772

Fax: +1(202) 3935886

EMail: ussa@usstudents.org

WWW: http://www.usstudents.org

 

Health/social provisions

Social security for home students: No

Foreign student social security provisions: Prospective students should contact the U.S. institution they seek to enter to obtain information on social and health benefits requirements and services.

Student expenses and financial aid

Bodies providing information on student financial aid:

AMIDEAST

1730 M. Street, NW
Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7769600

Fax: +1(202) 7767000

EMail: inquiries@amideast.org

WWW: http://www.amideast.org/

 

Deals with: Grants and Loans

Category of students: AMIDEAST provides information and assistance to students from the Middle East.

Association of International Educators (NAFSA)

1307 New York Avenue NW
8th Floor
Washington, DC 20005-4701
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7373699

Fax: +1(202) 7373657

EMail: inbox@nafsa.org

WWW: http://www.nafsa.org

 

Deals with: Grants

Category of students: Resources and programmes for international and US study abroad students.

Institute of International Education (IIE)

809 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017
United States of America

Tel: +1(212) 8838200

Fax: +1(212) 9845452

WWW: http://www.iie.org/

 

Deals with: Grants and Loans

Category of students: IIE provides information and advice on international study exchanges and funding.

Publications on student services and financial aid:

Title: Funding for U.S. study: A guide for foreign nationals (Annual edition)

Publisher: Institute of International Education (IIE)

Title: Study Abroad 2005-2006

Publisher: UNESCO

Year of publication: 2005

Title: To your health: An international student's guide to medical insurance in the U.S.(regularly updated)

Publisher: NAFSA - Association of International Educators

Title: US federal income tax guide for international students and scholars (regularly updated)

Publisher: NAFSA - Association of International Educators

 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES

Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:

Alliance for International Educational and Cultural Exchange

Head: Mickael McCarry, Executive Director

1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Suite 620
Washington, DC 20036-1912
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2936141

Fax: +1(202) 2936144

EMail: info@alliance-exchange.org

WWW: http://www.alliance-exchange.org

 

American Association of Community Colleges (AACC)

Head: Michael Baxter McCall, Board Chair

One Dupont Circle, NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7280200

Fax: +1(202) 8332467

WWW: http://www.aacc.nche.edu

 

American Council on Education (ACE)

Head: David Ward, President

Administrative officer: Madeleine Green, Vice President and Director, Center for Institutional and International Initiatives

International relations: Barbara Turlington, Director, International Education

One Dupont Circle, NW
Washington, DC 20036-1193
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 9399300

Fax: +1(202) 6592212

EMail: comments@ace.nche.edu

WWW: http://www.acenet.edu

 

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

US Department of State
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20520
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 6474000

WWW: http://exchanges.state.gov/

 

Council of Graduate Schools (CGS)

One Dupont Circle, NW
Suite 430
Washington, DC 20036-1173
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 2233791

Fax: +1(202) 3317157

EMail: pmcallister@cgs.nche.edu

WWW: http://www.cgsnet.org

 

Council on Standards for International Education and Travel (CSIET)

212 South Henry Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
United States of America

Tel: +1(703) 7399050

Fax: +1(703) 7399035

EMail: mailbox@csiet.org

WWW: http://www.csiet.org

 

Institute of International Education (IIE)

809 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017-3580
United States of America

Tel: +1(212) 8838200

Fax: +1(212) 9845452

WWW: http://www.iie.edu/

 

NAFSA: Association of International Educators

1307 New York Avenue NW, 8th floor
Washington, DC 20005-4701
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 7373699

Fax: +1(202) 7373657

EMail: inbox@nafsa.org

WWW: http://www.nafsa.org

 

The College Board, Office of International Education

3700 Crestwood Parkway
Suite 700
Duluth GA 30096
United States of America

Tel: +1(800) 9274302

Fax: +1(678) 3803315

EMail: info@atl.collegeboard.com

WWW: http://www.collegeboard.com/highered/index.html

 

United States Network for Education Information (USNEI), National Library of Education

International Affairs Staff/OUS, US Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20202-5523
United States of America

Tel: +1(202) 4013710

Fax: +1(202) 4012508

EMail: usnei@ed.gov

WWW: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/edlite-index.html

 

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes

Name of exchange programme: Fulbright Exchange Programme

Name of exchange programme: Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Programme

 

GRADING SYSTEM

Usual grading system in secondary school

Full Description: Most secondary schools use a grading system consisting of the Roman Alphabet letters A, B, C, D, sometimes E and F, with the letter I meaning "incomplete". These letters are linked to numerical grade scores. There is no national regulation on grading systems.

Highest on scale: A (Excellent)

Pass/fail level: D (Marginal)

Lowest on scale: F (Failure)

Main grading system used by higher education institutions

Full Description: Many institutions use either a letter grading system similar to that described for secondary school linked to a numerical system based upon points earned. The latter system is typically based on a five-, four-, or three-point scale. Some institutions do not use grades or provide them only upon request. Grading systems are determined by each institution.

Highest on scale: A, 4.0 (Excellent)

Pass/fail level: C, 2.0 (Marginal)

Lowest on scale: D or F, 1.0 or below (Failure)

Other main grading systems

Advanced research studies (Masters thesis, Doctoral dissertations), practica and projects or presentations in the fine or performing arts are often not assigned letter or numerical grades but rather evaluated on an "honours", "pass", or "fail" basis by the supervising faculty.  NOTE: US grading systems at both the secondary and higher education levels are generally based on the principle of starting with an assumption of a perfect grade and then subtracting points for errors, omissions, poor expression, unsound reasoning, etc. Numerical scores are often converted into letter grades, or vice-versa. Since there are five common letter grades (A,B,C,D,F) and ten-point score ranges are frequently issued to denote letter grade separations, it is common for any score/grade of less than 60 (D) to be considered unsatisfactory. This is an important difference from systems where scoring begins at zero and points are added to achieve a final grade.

 

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

There are no student services sponsored or operated by the federal government. A wide variety of student associations, service organizations and assistance corporations exists. They provide services of different kinds to students and their families. These range from disciplinary and professional associations to unions, financial institutions, health care associations, religious associations and others. Student associations and services offices exist at nearly every postsecondary institution and branch campus. Institutions also have specialized foreign student advising offices and foreign student associations to assist the special needs of overseas students and families. Local associations and offices provide information. There are no basic federal or national laws or decrees in the U.S. that govern the existence, nature, or operation of the postsecondary education community. The national government does not accredit institutions, regulate their operations, establish or monitor standards or curricula, or establish or govern the degrees and other credentials awarded. Responsibility for governing the conduct of higher education is decentralized in the various state governments. The federal Department of Education is restricted in its authority and competence to the following functions: (1) collecting and providing information and statistics about U.S. education; (2) providing leadership and influence in behalf of national education policies and initiatives; (3) administering programmes of financial assistance to students, institutions, and local and state governments; (4) conducting programmes of research and technical assistance; and (5) administering and enforcing the federal laws governing equal educational access and opportunity for all citizens and the core principles of academic freedom, autonomy, corporate existence, authorized degrees and other awards, and membership (student, faculty, or administration) standards.

 

Data for academic year: 2005-2006

Source: IAU from U.S. Network for Education Information (USNEI), Washington, 2006

Note on Higher Education Institutions: Also Public Community Colleges; Private Junior Colleges; Accredited Evangelical Christian Bible Colleges and Seminaries; Accredited Seminaries of Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Mainline Protestant Christian Faith communities: Accredited Conservative and Reformed Jewish Seminaries; Accredited Orthodox Jewish Rabbinical Schools and Torah Institutes (Yeshivot); Accredited Islamic and Accredited Buddhist Religious Institutes; Accredited Government and Military colleges, Universities, and other Schools; Accredited U.S. Institutions located abroad; foreign Institutions holding U.S. accreditation not listed in this directory.



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