EuroEducation.net
The European Education Directory




Search 900+ Universities for Bachelor, Master, Diploma & Professional Courses

Match term in Index:


Use the SEARCH above or browse by country and program of study




Arts & Humanities


Business & Economics


Engineering & Technology


MBA & Management


Science





Romania Higher Education System

Structure of the Higher Educational System in Romania
Admissions to Higher Education in Romania
Types of Higher Education Institutions in Romania
Cycles of Higher Education in Romania
 


Types of Higher Education Institutions


Higher education is accomplished through universities, institutions, academies of study and post-university studies schools.

The mission of the higher education institutions is either education and research or only education.

Establishment of the higher education institutions is possible only through dedicated laws, according to the institutions accreditation and diploma recognition procedures (Law 88/1993 amended through Law 144/1999).

Higher education institutions usually include several faculties, university colleges - colegiu universitar, departments, chairs and units for scientific research, design and micro-production.


First Cycle Programmes


Since 2005, the higher education system in Romania has been organised in three cycles: Bachelor the first degree programmes, master programmes and doctorate programmes compatible with the European qualification framework and laid out in Law 288 of 2004.Students who have graduated from an upper secondary institution are eligible to apply for admission to a first degree programme according to the admission methodology of each university and study programme. Admission generally depends on student performance at the national examination at the end of upper secondary education (called Bacalaureat), performance in upper secondary school and performance at the university entrance examination.

Bachelor

The Bachelor studies (Undergraduate studies), with a length that varies according to the field:

6 semesters (3 years) for sciences, humanities, economic and social sciences, political sciences, etc.;

8 semesters (4 years) for engineering, technique;

12 semesters (6 years) for general medicine, dental medicine, veterinary medicine and architecture.

Branches of Study

The reference domains and specialisations of study in higher education are established through a Government Decision. Current domains and specialisation are the followings:

• Exact sciences: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Informatics;

• Sciences of life and earth: Biology, Geography, Geology;

• Humanistic sciences: Philosophy, Philology, History, Psychology, Sciences of education;

• Theology: Theology;

• Political and social sciences: Sociology, Social assistance, Political sciences, International relations, Administrative sciences, Communication sciences;

• Juridical sciences: Law;

• Economy sciences: Economy, Cybernetics and economy statistics, Finances, Accounting, International economy relations, Management, Marketing;

• Agricultural, forestry and zoo-technical (livestock) sciences: Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Zoo-technology, Biotechnology;

• Medical sciences: Medicine, Dental medicine, Pharmacy, Veterinary medicine;

• Architecture and urbanism: Architecture, Urbanism;

• Arts: Fine and decorative arts, Music, Theatre, Cinematography and media;

• Physical education and sport: Physical education and sport;

• Engineering sciences: Technical geology, Mines, Oil and gases, Geodesy, Civil engineering, Installations, Sapper engineering, Aero-spatial engineering, Naval and navigation engineering, Mechanics engineering, Transportation engineering, Materials engineering, Industrial engineering, Wood engineering, Mecathronics, Systems and computers engineering, Electricity engineering, Energy engineering, Electronics engineering, Chemistry engineering, Textile and leather products engineering, Aliments engineering, Applied sciences, Economy engineering, Environment engineering, Military engineering;

• Military sciences.

Admission requirements

Admission to higher education for every cycle of academic studies – first degree (bachelor), master, and doctorate – is organised based on the admission methodology of each university, with the observance of the legislation in force.

For all cycles of academic studies, the number of places funded from the state budget is set by a Government Decision. Every public higher education institution is allocated by an Order of Minister a number of places funded from the state budget for which they can organise admission. Besides these places, public higher education institutions are authorised to admit a number of students who accept to pay tuition fees (Law 441/2001). The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports approves each year the exact number of places at every higher education institution for which students pay a tuition fee based on the proposals of the university senates and in compliance with the academic standards for evaluation and accreditation. Tuition fees are established by the senates.

The applicants can apply for more specialisations or to several higher education institutions at the same time. But a successful applicant can attend only one specialisation funded from the state budget during the normal length of studies. Students from private accredited higher education institutions who are admitted for places funded from the state budget can benefit from the recognition of the studies they already completed in accordance with the provisions of the university senate and based on the transferable credits they have acquired. This provision is also valid for students from public higher education if they are admitted by an accredited private higher education institution. The graduates of a private accredited institution are entitled to pursue a second specialisation in a public higher education institution in compliance with the law and under the conditions established by the University Charter.

For admission to first degree programmes, the admission to public and private higher education is organised for fields of study. This category of studies is associated with a number of study credits varying between 180 and 240. Admission is organised in one or two sessions. The periods of the admission sessions, as well as the admission tests, are established in the methodologies of faculties and are made public. The admission tests can be conducted in the Romanian language or in one of the national minority languages if the subjects tested were studied in one of these languages in high school, and also in an international language for studies in that language, with an obligatory test in linguistic competence.

Those who can apply for admission to first degree programmes are high school graduates with a baccalaureate diploma or an equivalent diploma. For the applicants who during their high school studies got a distinction in national school olympiads and school competitions recognised by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports or in international competitions, higher education institutions can provide, in their methodologies and in compliance with the legislation in force, special admission requirements, other than enrolment without going through an admission competition, for places funded from the state budget and for the courses in two specialisations. An applicant can benefit from this provision only once, in compliance with the legislation in force.

Curriculum

Curricula are established autonomously by the higher education institutions, according to the national strategies for higher education development and the national academic standards. According to the provisions of the law regarding higher education institutions accreditation and diploma recognition, the higher education curricula have to include compulsory, optional and facultative subjects. Compulsory and optional subjects belong to any of the following categories: fundamental, profile/specialisation and complementary subjects.

For each reference domain and specialisation of study recognized by the law, the higher education institutions establish the educational plan. The educational plan is a complex document comprising duration of studies, subjects by type and year of study, types of activities, number of allocated periods by subject and activity, examinations, and number of credits allocated, etc.

The structure and content of the educational plan regarding subjects, activities and number of periods has to comply with the national academic standards. The specific standards provide the indicative list of fundamental, profile/specialisation and complementary subjects and the ranges of the weights of the subjects in the each specialisation’s curriculum. Depending on the specialisation of studies, the weights of the different types of subjects in the total number of periods may range between 15% and 30% for fundamental subjects, between 50% and as high as 80% for profile and/or specialisation subjects, and between 5% and 10% for complementary subjects. Most of the education and training programme is compulsory (at least 60% of the time, but can be as high as 90% for certain specialisations); optional subjects can also contribute to the study credits, but facultative subjects usually do not. Regarding the activities, the national standards establish for each reference domain/specialisation the ration of theoretical activities (courses) and practical ones (seminars, laboratories, practical training, project work, etc.). For most specialisation this ration is 1:1 with a maximum of 20% deviation in either sense; however, for certain specialisations, the time allocated to the practical activities has to be significantly larger than for the theoretical ones (e.g. for medicine 1:2).

The final curricula for each subject are elaborated by the higher education institutions departments according to these specific standards, analysed by the departments’ councils, and approved by university senates. Foreign languages courses are compulsory regardless of the domain or specialisation attended. A number of higher education institutions provide complete tuition in a foreign language for certain specialisations.

According to the provisions of the Education Law, for all education levels, education and training is provided in Romanian. The persons belonging to the national minorities have the right to study and be instructed in their mother tongue at all levels and forms of education as well as in all types of education – providing there is a sufficient demand. In consequence, study lines in Hungarian and German for students belonging to these national minorities are organised in several higher education institutions. Besides this, certain higher education institutions organise departments for initial teacher training for teaching the languages of national minorities in Pre-tertiary education. At the same time, the Education Law states that learning of Romanian, as the official language, is compulsory for all Romanian citizens, irrespective of their nationality.

Teaching Methods

The teaching-learning activities have to comply in what regards fundamental types and ratios with the national academic standards for each reference domain and specialisation.The teaching-learning activities for most academic subjects include lectures (theoretical courses), seminars, laboratory classes, practical activities and projects preparation and presentation. Lectures, usually held to a large number of students, provide the basic knowledge in a specific field of study. Seminars are devoted to a thorough study of the themes approached in lectures and require an active participation of the students. Laboratory classes, taught to small groups of students, are devoted to research activities and practical training under the supervision of a tutor. For certain specialisations practical activities – in the form of field work, scientific research, teaching practice, etc. – are required. Teachers are free to choose their own teaching methods. During all the teaching-learning activities, according to the specificity of the specialisation and subject, professors use a variety of teaching methods, include:

• Expository methods (description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.) – mostly during lectures;

• Exploratory learning methods such as direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, experiments, practical work, etc.) and indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through pictures, films, etc.) – mostly during seminars, laboratory classes and practical activities;

• Project preparation and presentation.

The teaching aids used in higher education depend on the specialisation and subject. Teaching through ICT is used on an extensive scale for modelling, designing, calculating, presentations, information acquisition, communication, etc. In higher education institutions as well as in numerous universities campuses students have full-time free of charge access to public computers connected to Internet.

Progression of Students

The organization of the higher education process using the transferable credit system has begun during the 1998/1999 academic year. This mode of organization makes the use of an analytical evaluation system of the time and effort necessary to carry on activities composing the education process possible. Moreover, it has advantages both for the mode of organization and its management and for its validation with the education process in other universities in Romania and abroad. The total number of credits associated to a higher education programme is set and is of 180, 240, 300 or 360 credits – corresponding to duration of studies day courses respectively (one year more for evening courses, part-time or distance education). Thus, a year of day course study is the equivalent of an average of 60 credits. The maximum number of transferable credits in the ECTS (European Credits Transfer System) is set by the council of each faculty. If a student follows a study period in other higher education institutions (domestic and/or abroad), according to the regulations set by each institution, the credits obtained will be recognized.

Within the university autonomy, each higher education institution establishes its own promotion requirements, according to the general provisions of the law and the national standards for higher education. Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject three times: regular examination, second examination and re-examination. If failing both regular and second examination (the latter performed in a dedicated session), the student may be allowed to enroll in the next year of study and sit the examination again, subject to the rector’s approval. Nevertheless, the deadline for the third examination (the re-examination) is the first regular session of the next academic year. If failing for the third time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject.

Promotion from one year of study to the next one is subject to the overall performance of the students, as assessed through the results of the examinations held in the given year of study. Students have to pass a certain percentage of the total number of examinations of a given year of study before being allowed to enroll for the next one. Students that do not accomplish the minimum percentage of passed examinations established by the higher education institution are declared repeaters and have to repeat the corresponding year of study. However, professors may accept recognition of the examinations previously passed with a certain minimum mark.

Student transfer requirements are regulated by the university senates of the higher education institutions. Usually the transfer may take place at the beginning of the academic year (under exceptional circumstances it may occur at the beginning of the second semester) and is allowed between related reference domains/specialisations. The transfer is a multiple step process, involving a series of formal approvals from the deans and the rectors of the higher education institutions involved. The receiving higher education institution has to issue a registration order for the new student, and to control if the credits are transferable.

Student Assessment

Students assessment in higher education is accomplished through periodic (summative) examinations organised for each subject in the curricula. Assessments are performed in the form of oral questioning, written papers and practical examinations as well as, in some cases, project presentations. The evaluation criteria for the academic and professional performances of the students are established by the higher education institutions according to the university autonomy. The concrete requirements and evaluation criteria for each subject are regulated by the curricula (in the introductory section of each subject). Evaluations of the students’ performances during higher education are materialized for each subject in marks on a 10-level scale. The examination of the students for each subject is performed by a commission comprising the professor lecturing on the given subject assisted by at least one other specialist from the same chair/department. After each examination the mark assigned to the student is registered in the students’ personal indexes and the official records of the institution.

Higher education institutions organise two regular examination sessions for the students during each academic year – usually held in February and May-June respectively – and at least one second examination session in autumn, before the beginning of the academic year. The second examination sessions are organised for the students that did not attain or failed one or more subjects’ examinations during the regular examination sessions. Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject (regular examination, second examination and re-examination) for three times; if failed each time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject. According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed), the higher education institutions may establish certain fees for the second examinations and re-examinations in order to cover for the supplementary costs.

Certification

Finalisation of the long-term higher education is accomplished through an exam – examen de licenţă organised based on the general criteria established by the The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. The content of the exams and the specific criteria are established by the university senates.

Graduates passing the examenul de licenţă receive the title Licenţiat in the corresponding profile and specialisation, attested through a diploma issued by the higher education institution organizing the exam. Long-term higher education studies lasting for more than 4 years are finalised through the diploma exam, as the case may be. Graduates passing the diploma exam receive the title diplomat in the corresponding specialisation, according to the international standards, attested through a diploma issued by the higher education institution organizing the exam.

Graduates that do not pass the examenul de licenţă or the diploma exam can receive, upon request, a long-term higher education certificate – certificat de studii universitare de lungă durată and a copy of the matriculation fiche listing all the subjects and the corresponding marks. Students or graduates wanting to pursue a teaching career have the obligation to attend and pass the courses organised by the Teacher Training Department. Passing of these specific courses is attested through a graduation certificate.

For higher education, the final exams have to be taken before an exam commission established for each specialisation. The exam commissions are established through decision of the rector of the higher education institution organizing the exams, based on the propositions of the faculty, college or department councils. The exam commission has to comprise at least three members with doctorate degrees and the chair has to be a professor or a lecturer.

The Diploma Supplement was introduced on the basis of the Ministerial Order adopted in April 2000. At present it is issued automatically, free of charge, by all institutions and for all Bachelor’s and Master’s programmes, in Romanian and English.


Second Cycle Programmes


The master studies correspond, usually, to a number of credits between 90 and 120, a master semester corresponding to a number of 30 study credits. The total length of the 1st cycle (undergraduate studies) and 2nd cycle (master studies) has to correspond to at least 300 transferable study credits.

Branches of Study

Master-degree studies aims at extending competences into several fields of the long-term higher education specialisation graduated. Master-degree studies take 2-4 semesters, are finalized by a dissertation and recognised through a Diploma de Master.

Admission requirements

Admission to higher education for every cycle of academic studies – first degree (bachelor), master, and doctorate – is organised based on the admission methodology of each university, with the observance of the legislation in force.

For all cycles of academic studies, the number of places funded from the state budget is set by a Government Decision. Every public higher education institution is allocated by an Order of Minister a number of places funded from the state budget for which they can organise admission. Besides these places, public higher education institutions are authorised to admit a number of students who accept to pay tuition fees (Law 441/2001). The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports approves each year the exact number of places at every higher education institution for which students pay a tuition fee based on the proposals of the university senates and in compliance with the academic standards for evaluation and accreditation. Tuition fees are established by the senates.

Curriculum

Curricula are established autonomously by the higher education institutions, according to the national strategies for higher education development and the national academic standards. According to the provisions of the law regarding higher education institutions accreditation and diploma recognition, the higher education curricula have to include compulsory, optional and facultative subjects. Compulsory and optional subjects belong to any of the following categories: fundamental, profile/specialisation and complementary subjects.

For each reference domain and specialisation of study recognized by the law, the higher education institutions establish the educational plan. The educational plan is a complex document comprising duration of studies, subjects by type and year of study, types of activities, number of allocated periods by subject and activity, examinations, and number of credits allocated, etc.The structure and content of the educational plan regarding subjects, activities and number of periods has to comply with the national academic standards. The final curricula for each subject are elaborated by the higher education institutions departments according to these specific standards, analysed by the departments’ councils, and approved by university senates. A number of higher education institutions provide complete tuition in a foreign language for certain specialisations.

According to the provisions of the Education Law, for all education levels, education and training is provided in Romanian. The persons belonging to the national minorities have the right to study and be instructed in their mother tongue at all levels and forms of education as well as in all types of education – providing there is a sufficient demand. In consequence, study lines in Hungarian and German for students belonging to these national minorities are organised in several higher education institutions. At the same time, the Education Law states that learning of Romanian, as the official language, is compulsory for all Romanian citizens, irrespective of their nationality.

Teaching Methods

The teaching-learning activities have to comply in what regards fundamental types and ratios with the national academic standards for each reference domain and specialisation.The teaching-learning activities for most academic subjects include lectures (theoretical courses), seminars, laboratory classes, practical activities and projects preparation and presentation. Lectures, usually held to a large number of students, provide the basic knowledge in a specific field of study. Seminars are devoted to a thorough study of the themes approached in lectures and require an active participation of the students. Laboratory classes, taught to small groups of students, are devoted to research activities and practical training under the supervision of a tutor. For certain specialisations practical activities – in the form of field work, scientific research, teaching practice, etc. – are required. Teachers are free to choose their own teaching methods. During all the teaching-learning activities, according to the specificity of the specialisation and subject, professors use a variety of teaching methods, include:

• Expository methods (description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.) – mostly during lectures;

• Exploratory learning methods such as direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, experiments, practical work, etc.) and indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through pictures, films, etc.) – mostly during seminars, laboratory classes and practical activities;

• Project preparation and presentation.

The teaching aids used in higher education depend on the specialisation and subject. Teaching through ICT is used on an extensive scale for modelling, designing, calculating, presentations, information acquisition, communication, etc. In higher education institutions as well as in numerous universities campuses students have full-time free of charge access to public computers connected to Internet.

Progression of Students

The organization of the higher education process using the transferable credit system has begun during the 1998/1999 academic year. This mode of organization makes the use of an analytical evaluation system of the time and effort necessary to carry on activities composing the education process possible. Moreover, it has advantages both for the mode of organization and its management and for its validation with the education process in other universities in Romania and abroad. Thus, a year of day course study is the equivalent of an average of 60 credits. The maximum number of transferable credits in the ECTS (European Credits Transfer System) is set by the council of each faculty. If a student follows a study period in other higher education institutions (domestic and/or abroad), according to the regulations set by each institution, the credits obtained will be recognized.

Within the university autonomy, each higher education institution establishes its own promotion requirements, according to the general provisions of the law and the national standards for higher education. Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject three times: regular examination, second examination and re-examination. If failing both regular and second examination (the latter performed in a dedicated session), the student may be allowed to enroll in the next year of study and sit the examination again, subject to the rector’s approval. Nevertheless, the deadline for the third examination (the re-examination) is the first regular session of the next academic year. If failing for the third time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject.

Promotion from one year of study to the next one is subject to the overall performance of the students, as assessed through the results of the examinations held in the given year of study. Students have to pass a certain percentage of the total number of examinations of a given year of study before being allowed to enroll for the next one. Students that do not accomplish the minimum percentage of passed examinations established by the higher education institution are declared repeaters and have to repeat the corresponding year of study. However, professors may accept recognition of the examinations previously passed with a certain minimum mark.

Student Assessment

Students assessment in higher education is accomplished through periodic (summative) examinations organised for each subject in the curricula. Assessments are performed in the form of oral questioning, written papers and practical examinations as well as, in some cases, project presentations. The evaluation criteria for the academic and professional performances of the students are established by the higher education institutions according to the university autonomy. The concrete requirements and evaluation criteria for each subject are regulated by the curricula (in the introductory section of each subject). Evaluations of the students’ performances during higher education are materialized for each subject in marks on a 10-level scale. The examination of the students for each subject is performed by a commission comprising the professor lecturing on the given subject assisted by at least one other specialist from the same chair/department. After each examination the mark assigned to the student is registered in the students’ personal indexes and the official records of the institution.

Higher education institutions organise two regular examination sessions for the students during each academic year – usually held in February and May-June respectively – and at least one second examination session in autumn, before the beginning of the academic year. The second examination sessions are organised for the students that did not attain or failed one or more subjects’ examinations during the regular examination sessions. Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject (regular examination, second examination and re-examination) for three times; if failed each time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject. According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed), the higher education institutions may establish certain fees for the second examinations and re-examinations in order to cover for the supplementary costs.

Certification

Master-degree studies are finalised through a dissertation exam during which the candidates have to present a dissertation in the specialisation of study. The minimum passing mark for the dissertation exam is 6.00. Graduation is attested through a Master studies diploma issued by the higher education institution. For higher education, the final exams have to be taken before an exam commission established for each specialisation. The exam commissions are established through decision of the rector of the higher education institution organizing the exams, based on the propositions of the faculty, college or department councils. The exam commission has to comprise at least three members with doctorate degrees and the chair has to be a professor or a lecturer.


Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure


The post-university programs offered by the Romanian educational system are:

a) Post-Ph.D. programs, with a minimum length of 1 year;

b) Specialisation studies, with a length of 2 or more semesters;

c) Lifelong learning programs.

The post-university specialisation studies correspond to a minimum length of 2 semesters and a minimum number of 60 credits.

The lifelong learning programs can also be organized according to ECTS.

Types of diplomas The qualifications from the higher education system are: diplomas, certificates, degrees and other official state documents, with special regime, that confirm the higher education program graduated and the professional titles.


Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes


Doctoral Diploma is the highest academic degree awarded in all domains after 3-4 years of study and original research. It follows the first academic degree (or master's degree) and requires the passing of examinations and the submission of an original thesis. The holder of a doctoral diploma is granted the Ph.D. title in the respective field of science or arts.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD represents the third cycle of higher education and allows for a qualification of level 8 within EQF/CEC and within the National Qualification Framework. It takes place based on a Code of PhD Education, approved by government decision.

Organisation of doctoral studies

According to the legislation, the doctoral studies are organised in fundamental domains of sciences and arts. In sciences the doctoral studies are organised in the following domains: exact sciences, natural sciences, humanistic sciences, social and political sciences, sciences of education, economy sciences, juridical sciences, agriculture and forestry sciences, medical sciences, architecture and urbanism, engineering sciences, theology and military sciences. In arts the doctoral studies are organised in the following domains: visual arts, music, theatre, cinematography, ballet and physical education and sport. Doctoral studies are finalised with a doctoral thesis and are recognised through a diploma de doctor.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD programs can only be organized as daily attendance courses. For the Ph.D. educational programmes, the obligations concerning the attendance are set by the management of the school that organizes the programmes in question, in compliance with a methodology developed by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports. The obligations concerning the attendance represent a criterion used for the assessment of the Ph.D. study schools, including for financing.

The doctoral studies comprise the following: • High general training – determined by the student and the Director of the doctoral programme together, subsequently approved by the council of the department, respectively by the scientific council of the research institute.

• Preparation and elaboration of the doctoral thesis. The title and the subject of the thesis are approved by the council of the department, respectively by the scientific council of the research institute; the student is allowed to change the subject once.

• Public presentation of the doctoral thesis.

The structure of the training programme consists of theoretical and practical activities for the specific field of the doctoral studies.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD educational programs may be organized by accredited or temporarily authorized Doctorate Organizing Universities. Doctorate Organizing Universities may be organized by consortiums or partnerships, or by consortiums or partnerships legally concluded between a university or a university consortium and research and development entities. Universities, or partnerships with consortiums organizing one or several accredited or temporarily approved Doctorate Organizing Universities represent Doctorate Organizing Universities (IOSUD), recognized as such by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports, based on the accreditation or temporary authorization and periodic evaluation.

The Romanian Academy may establish the Doctorate Organizing School of the Romanian Academy, in compliance with the provisions of this law on the authorization, accreditation and operation as higher educational institution. The Doctorate Organizing School of the Romanian Academy may be IOSUD and may organize Ph.D. degree programmes.

Each Doctorate Organizing School is assessed individually, for each area, for accreditation. The assessment of the Doctorate Organizing School is made based on its performance and on the institutional capacity of IOSUD to which the Doctorate Organizing School belongs. The assessment of the Doctorate Organizing Schools is made by ARACIS or by another national or foreign agency for the quality assurance, based on the CNCS reports in the quality of the research and on the CNATDCU reports on the quality of the human resources. The criteria system and the assessment methodology are set by order of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports, based on joint proposals of ARACIS, CNCS and CNATDCU. Each Doctorate Organizing School is assessed periodically, every 5 years.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, PhD programmes are of two types:

• scientific PhD, which has as final result the generation of original scientific knowledge, relevant at international level, based on scientific methods, organized only for daily attendance. The scientific PhD is an essential condition for a carrier as a researcher or professor in the higher education system;

• professional PhD, in arts and sports, which has as final result the generation of original scientific knowledge based on scientific methods and systematic reflection, on artistic creation or on Sports performance at national and international high level and which may represent a basis for the professional career in higher education and research in arts and sports.

The curriculum and the research program are decided by the Ph.D. tutor and by the doctoral school.

Admission Requirements According the Education Law no 1/2011, the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports develops el the framework methodology for the organization of the admission in the Romanian public and private educational institutions on an annual basis.Each higher educational institution elaborates and applies its own regulations for the organization of the educational programmes it provides.

Any candidate from the member states of the European Union, from the European Economic Space and from the Swiss Confederation may take the admission exam for a public, private or confessional higher education for each educational cycle and program, in the same conditions provided by law for the Romanian citizens, as well as the tuition is concerned, too.

According to the legal provisions in force the higher education institutions may charge candidates with registration fees for the organization and execution of the admission, in the quantum approved by the university Senate. In their own methodologies, the university Senates may decide upon tax exemption or reduction.

A person may benefit from financing from the budget for a single graduation programme, for a single master’s degree programme, and for a singer Ph.D. degree programme.

Only the graduates of the master’s degree programs or equivalent studies have the right to participate to the admission to PhD programs.

Status of Doctoral Students/ Candidates

The person admitted to a bachelor, master or PhD educational program is a student, post-graduate respectively, during its entire presence in programme in question, from the registration moment and to the finalization of the studies or rustication, less the periods when studies are interrupted.

Supervision Arrangements

In the context of the university mobility policies, IOSUD may employ, on a contractual basis, specialists from abroad who have the legal right to be tutors.

The competence of PhD mentor is granted by order of the Minister of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports, at the proposal, of CNATDCU for granting the competence certificate in compliance with the standards and proce dures developed by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports. These standards are set based on evaluation criteria relevant at international level proposed by CNATDCU and approved by order of the Minister of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports. The minimal standards for the acceptance of the competence certificate file by the CNATDCU are not dependent upon the didactic position and are identical to the standards for granting the professor title.

In order to coordinate PhD studies, the teaching and research staff who have obtained such right must conclude a labour contract with a IOSUD or another IOSUD-member institution and must be a member of a PhD organizing school. The competent teaching and research and the scientific researchers who have the competence to become Ph.D tutors become PhD tutors after being authorized.

Employability According the Education Law no 1/2011, PhD students are employed by IOSUD or by any of the IOSUD members as research assistants or assistant professors, on a definite period.

During the entire activity, the student attending courses with daily attendance benefits from the acknowledgement of worked years and qualification and also from free medical care, without paying the contribution to the social insurance, unemployment, health and work accident and occupational diseases insurances.

The PhD student may perform teaching activities, in compliance with the education services agreement, in the limit of 4-6 normal classes/week. The teaching activities that exceed this level will be paid according to the legislation in force, falling under the Labour Code, and requiring the observance of the rights and obligations of an employee and the payment of contributions due by law to the social insurance, unemployment, health and work accident and occupational diseases insurances.

According to the pension law, the PhD education is an assimilated period, and is taken into consideration when deciding the contribution rate, except for the case in which the student registers revenues for which, during this time, he/she is paying contributions to the social insurances.

Assessment

The examinations are performed by an Examination Commission. Students can advance in their education and training programme if obtaining a minimum mark of 8.00 in examinations and a pass qualification for the research papers/creative works. If they fail one examination or if one research paper is not accepted, they may sit the examination once more, or may defend the research paper/creative work again.

Certification

The PhD thesis is drafted in compliance with the requirements decided by the IOSUD in the PhD regulation and in compliance with the regulations of the Code for the PhD University Studies.

Doctoral studies are finalised through a thesis publicly defended and evaluated by a commission of specialists approved by the university senate. The commission comprises a chair, the Director of the doctoral programme and three official reviewers, specialists with outstanding scientific activity holding a diploma de doctor in the domain (professors, lecturers, academicians, scientific researchers of rank I – from the country or abroad) of which at least two do not function in the respective IOD. The members of the commission produce review papers containing general and analytical assessment remarks, and their conclusion on the academic value of the thesis, expressing their agreement or disagreement upon the awarding of the diploma de doctor.

The PhD thesis is defended in a public meeting before the PhD commission, after the positive evaluation of all the referents. The defence of the PhD thesis may take place in the presence of at least 4 of the 5 members of the commission, with the mandatory participation of the commission’s president and PhD mentor. The public defence must include a session of questions by the members of the PhD commission and the public.

Based on the public presentation of the PhD thesis and of the official referents’ reports, the PhD commission evaluates and deliberates upon the grade that the thesis receives. The grades are: „Excellent”, “Very good”, “Good”, “Satisfactory” and “Unsatisfactory”. “Excellent” is usually granted for maximum 15% of the candidates who acquire the PhD title in a certain IOSUD, in the course of an academic year.

If the PhD student has observed the requirements provided in the scientific research program and the grade of the PhD thesis is “Very good”, “Good” or “Satisfactory” co the PhD commission proposes to award the PhD title, proposal that is submitted with CNATDCU for validation. Following the evaluation of the file, CNATDCU, proposes to the Minister of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports to grant or to not to grant the PhD title.

If the grade is “Unsatisfactory”, the PhD commission will identify the content elements that must be remade or completed from the thesis and will request a new public defence. The second defence of the PhD thesis takes place before the same PhD commission, as in the case of the first defence. If, following the second public defence, the PhD thesis is graded “Unsatisfactory”, the PhD title is not granted, and the student shall be expelled.

The PhD title is granted by an order of the Minister of Education, Research, Youth, and Sports, after the validation of the thesis by CNATDCU.


Copyright Š European Union 1995-2014










EuroEducation Net | admin@euroeducation.net
CopyrightŠEuroEducation || Terms of Use | Disclaimer | Cookie Policy