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Jagiellonian University

The Faculty of Pharmacy and Division of Medical Analytics



 

Address Ul. Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
Tel. No. + 48 12 657 54 56
Fax No. + 48 12 657 02 62
E-mail address mfkkulig@cyf-kr.edu.pl
Degree courses
  • Pharmacy Medical Analysis
  • Medical Analysis
  • Length of course Pharmacy studies 5 years
    Medical analytics studies 5 years
    Additional studies for foreigners after B.Sc. - 1,5 years
    Date of commencement 1st October every year
    Class size Theoretical training – 20
    Practical training – 8
    Accommodation There is possibility to get an accommodation at campus
    Financial assistance Student’s grants and financial assistance only for Polish students and holders of scholarships
    Admission requirements Polish language fluency is required
    English language for additional studies
    Application used in our University
    Copy of secondary school certificate, which allows study of pharmacy in domestic country. Certificate of premedical part of collage is also required for students from USA and Canada
    Certificate of a good health state (with AIDS test)
    4 photos (37 x 52 mm)
    Copy of passport
    Overseas students are required to pay all payment for each study year by 30th September every year
    Student profile Ratio of National/Overseas 98%/2%
    Ratio of Men/Woman 90%/10%
    Age range 19 - 27
    Contact for application The Faculty of Pharmacy
    and Division of Medical Analytics
    Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University
    ul. Medyczna 9 30-688 Krakow, Poland


     






    About the Faculty of Pharmacy and Division of Medical Analytics Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University



    The history of academic pharmacy in Cracow began in 1783 when the Department of Pharmacy and Medical Matters was created. The chair was awarded to Jan Szaster, a pharmacist and doctor of medical science. The course of studies initially covered two years, and the first graduation diploma was granted in 1797.

    Thanks to involvement of Sawiczewski during the years 1833-1850, the program of studies was extended to three years.

    The abolition of Jagiellonian University autonomy in 1853 affected the standard of education in pharmacy. The curriculum was limited to two years.

    The end of World War and the creation of a newly independent Poland brought with it new hopes for the further development of pharmacy. A Pharmaceutical Department within the Philosophy Department was created, with the professor of chemistry Karol Dziewonski as a Chair. The expanded three-year course was filled with new disciplines like chemical technology, applied pharmacy, and physical chemistry. In 1923 a new department of Applied Pharmacy was established. It was administrated by professor Marek Gatty-Kostyal.

    The period of Nazi occupation interrupted the academic activities of Jagiellonian University. The Chairman of Pharmacy prof. Marek Gatty-Kostyal was arrested by the Gestapo in 1939. In 1942 an the Pharmaceutical Department of underground university with 121 students was organised. In 1947 an independent Department of Pharmacy of Jagiellonian University was created.

    In 1949 the Faculty of Pharmacy was included in the Academy of Medicine, thus separating it from Jagiellonian University. In 1957 a five-year curriculum of pharmaceutical education was introduced. The Division of Medical Analysis was created within the Faculty of Pharmacy in 1977.

    Since 1993, Pharmacy has been taught in the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University.

    The research activity of the Faculty concerns two fundamental subjects: synthetic medicines and plant medicines. Issues covered include the synthesis of substances and the isolation of plant compounds and elucidation of their chemical structures, the assessment of pharmacological properties, pharmacokinetics, biochemical, toxicological and analytical research, and the technology of the forms of medications.


    The Programme of Studies


    1st Year

    Biology and Bases of Genetic
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 30 hours, Practice 30 hours

    Principles of Mathematics
    Lecture 15 hours, Practice 30 hours

    Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry
    Lecture 75 hours, Seminar 30 hours, Practice 240 hours

    Organic Chemistry
    Lecture 45 hours, Seminar 45 hours, Practice 48

    Latin (obligatory for student who has not Latin in secondary school)
    Course 60 hours

    English (beginner and advanced group)
    Course 60 hours

    Physical Education
    Practice 60 hours

    Pharmaceutical Botany

    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 15 hours, Practice (including excursion) 75 hours

    Computer Science
    Lecture 15 hours, Practice 30 hours


    2nd Year

    Organic Chemistry
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 45 hours, Practice 72 hours

    Propaedeutics of Pharmacy
    Lecture 1 hour

    Physiology
    Lecture 45 hours, Seminar 30 hours, Practice 30 hours

    Anatomy
    Practice 30 hours

    Physical Pharmacy
    Lecture 30 hours, Seminar 30 hours, Practice 60 hours

    History of Philosophy
    Lecture 30 hours, Practice 30 hours

    English (beginner and advanced group)
    Course 60 hours

    Physical Education
    Practice 30 hours

    Biochemistry
    Lecture 60 hours, Practice 45 hours

    Pharmacognosy
    Lecture 15 hours, Practice 30 hours


    3rd Year

    Pharmacognosy
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 15 hours, Practice 30 hours

    Hygiene and Epidemiology
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 15 hours

    Microbiology
    Lecture 30 hours, Practice 75 hours

    Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    Lecture 90 hours, Practice 165 hours

    Pathophysiology
    Lecture 30 hours, Seminar 30 hours. Practice 15 hours

    Classical Education
    Lecture 20 hours, Practice 40 hours

    Foreign Language
    Course 60 hours

    Physical Education
    Practice 30 hours

    Pharmacokinetics
    Lecture 10 hours, Practice 20 hours

    Technology of Drug
    Lecture 30 hours, Practice 120 hours

    Pharmacodynamics
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 10 hours, Practice 20 hours

    1 month training in open pharmacy


    4th Year

    Technology of Drug
    Lecture 30 hours, Practice 80 hours

    Bromatology
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 15 hours, Practice 45 hours

    Toxicology
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 15 hours, Practice 90 hours

    Pharmacodynamics
    Lecture 75 hours, Seminar 40 hours, Practice 90 hours

    Synthesis and Technology of Drug
    Lecture 4 hours, Seminar 26 hours, Practice 45 hours

    Pharmaceutical Ethics
    Practice 15 hours

    Foreign Language
    Course 60 hours

    Optional

    Pharmaceutical Biochemistry
    Lecture 15 hours

    Methods of Searching Bioactive Substances
    Lecture 10 hours, Practice 5 hour

    Basis of Resuscitation
    Seminar 10 hours, Practice 10 hours

    Statistics
    Seminar 30 hours

    1 month training in hospital pharmacy


    5th Year

    Natural Drug
    Lecture 10 hours, Seminar 20 hours

    History of Pharmacy
    Lecture 30 hours

    Biopharmacy Lecture 30 hours, Seminar 30 hours

    Legislation, Organisation and Economical Pharmacy
    Lecture 15 hours, Seminar 20 hours, Practice 10 hours

    Catastrophe Medicine and Relief
    Lecture 38 hours, Seminar 16 hours, Practice 6 hours

    Specialisation Pharmaceutical

    Technology of Drug
    Lecture 30 hours, Practice 80 hours

    Training in Pharmacy 60 hours

    Some Aspects of Pharmacotherapy
    Seminar 15 hours

    Drug Information
    Seminar 15 hours

    Specialisation Clinical Pharmacy

    Training in Pharmacy 60 hours

    Pharmacotherapy and Clinical Pharmacokinetics
    Seminar 30 hours, Practice 90 hours, Drug Information
    Seminar 15 hours, Practice 15 hours, Final work 375 hour (each specialisation)




    Selected Academic Publications







    BRAIN COPPER LEVELS AFTER ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATEMENT
    Schiegel - Zawadzka M., Kros'rnak M., Nowak G.
    Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, vol.5, 1998, 703-708

    The copper-zinc interaction plays a role in nutrition and diseases since the two species have similar electronic configurations and ionic sizes. Pharmacological doses of zinc can produce human copper deficiency and its clinical consequences: anaemia, leukopenia and neutropenia. The results of our studies and those by other authors indicate a significant role of zinc homeostasis in depression and in the mechanism of antidepressant therapy. The possible role of copper is not well recognised. We have studied the effect of chronic treatment with imipramine and with citalopram on the brain copper level in rats.


    A GERMACRADIENE GLYCOSIDE FROM ROOTS OF PIMP INELLA SAXIFRA GA
    Kisiel W., Janeczko Z., Zgud - Walaszek M.
    Phytochemistry vol.49, No.7, pp.2031-2033, 1998

    A new germacradiene glycoside was found to occur in the roots of Pimpinella saxifraga. The structure of its acetylation product was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.


    THEOPHYLLINE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL HISTAMINE H3-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
    Kiec' - Kononowicz K., Ce~a M. T.
    Pharmazie 53, 1998, 8

    Previous results of histamine H3-receptor investigations allowed to formulate a general structure of H3-receptor antagonists. According to this model a series of compounds were obtained. As heterocycles they contained a theophylline moiety connected with a polar group (amine, ester, amide and thiourea function) via an alkyl chain linked by a spacer to a lipophilic residue. The common distance between xanthine moiety and lipophilic rest was a six-link-chain. Selected compounds did not show significant H3-receptor antagonist activity and were weak antagonists at histamine H1-receptors.


    ISOPARAXANTHINE ANALOGS (1,7- AND 1,9- SUBSTITUTED XANTHINE DERIVATIVES)
    Muller Ch. E., Deters D., Dominik A., Pawlowski M.
    Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 1998, 1428-1436

    A general, convenient method for the preparation of 1,7- and 1 ,9-disubstituted xanthine derivatives (paraxanthine and isoparaxanthine analogs) was developed starting from 6- amino-2-methoxypirimidine-4-one Alkylation with alkyl halides in acetone/potassium carbonate in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst (PTC) yielded an equimolar mixture of N3- and 04 - alkylated products, which could be separated by dry column chromatography. The N3-alkylated uracil derivatives were converted to a corresponding 1 -alkyl-2-methoxypurin-6-ones by standard procedures. PTC alkylation yielded an equimolar mixture of 7- and 9-alkylated isomers, which were again conveniently separated by dry column chromatography. The title compounds were obtained after acid hydrolysis of the 2-methoxy group in satisfactory yields.


    AMINOALKANdLIC DERIVATIVES Of~ XANTHONE WITH POTENTIAL ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY
    Marona H., G6rka Z., Szneler E.
    Pharmazie 53, 1998, 4

    Synthesis, physicochemical and anticonvulsant properties of some aminoisopropanoloxy derivatives of 2-xanthone are described. The compounds were prepared by the amination of 2- [(2,3 -epoxy)-propoxylJ~xanthone or 2-(3 -chloro-2-hydroxy~ propoxy)-xanthone. The obtained compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock (MES)- and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scMet)-induced seizures and for neurotoxicity in the rotorod test in mice and rats. The most promising compounds seem to be the 3-(tert. -butyl-amino) (3), 3-~-methyl-(tert. -butyl)-amino] (12) and 3-[4-(benzyl) 1 -piperazinyl (5) substituted 2-hydroxy- 1 -(2-xanthonoxy)-propane from which 3 and 5 were active in both the anticonvulsant tests. The protective index (TD5O/ED5O) in MES in mice for 3 and valproate, as for 12 and phenytoin or carbamazepine, is similar.


    IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF TRITERPENE SAPONOSIDES AND QUINOID PIGMENTS FROM LYSIMACHM VULGARIS L.
    Authors Podolak I., Elas M., Cieszka K.
    Journal Phytotherapy Research, vol.12, s70-s73, 1998

    Summary Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Primu/aceae) has been used in folk medicine of Europe and Asia in the treatment of fever, ulcers, diarrhoea and as analgesic and antunflammatory agent. From the underground parts of the plant a benzoquinone pigment and triterpene saponosides were isolated. Cytotoxic and anti flingal activity of these compounds were tested in vitro against human and mouse melanoma cells and the yeast Candida albicans respectively. The results showed that saponoside B exerted cytotoxicity especially towards human melanoma cells. The pigment was more active as an antifungal agent.


    IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CATTLE: COMPENSATORY CHANGES IN THYROIDAL SELENOENZYMES
    Zagrodzki P., Nicol F., Mc Coy M. A., Smyth J. A., Kennedy D. G., Beckett G. J., Arthur 3. R.
    Research in Veterinary Science, 1998, 64, 209-211

    The trace elements selenium and iodine are both essential for normal thyroid metabolism. To investigate the relationship between these functions, heifers we maintained on iodine-deficient or iodine-sufficient diets from mid pregnancy to term. In these heifers and their offspring the interrelationship between iodine and selenium was apparent with the preferential 10- to 12-fold induction of the selenoenzyme, thyroidal type I, selenium-containing iodothyronine deiodinase activity by iodine deficiency. This was accompanied by two- to four-fold increase in cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity, probably reflecting increased oxidative activity and metabolism in the thyroid gland in response to iodine deficiency. The above selenoenzyme activities were not affected in liver, kidney, pituitary and brain by iodine deficiency. The results are consistent with a critical role for selenium in both the normal function of cattle thyroid and key enzymes to compensate for the effects of iodine deficiency.


    EVALUATION OF SOME 2-SUBSTITUTED DERIVATIVES OF XANTHONE FOR ANTICONVULSANT PROPERTIES
    Marona H. Pharmazie 53, 1998, 6

    A series of alkanolamides and alkanoamines derivatives of xanthone were prepared and evaluated for antiepileptic activity in the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold (ScMet) assays and for neurotoxicity (TOX). Several analogues form the appropriate alkanolamines were found to be active in both the anticonvulsant tests. Most interesting were the anticonvulsant results of the appropriate 2-amino- or 2-N-methylamino- 1 - butanol derivatives of 7-chloroxanthone 8-11, which displayed anti-MES activity with a protective index (TD5O/ED5O) in the range 2.84-3.62 for 8-11 corresponding with that for phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate.


    DETERMINATION OF HYDROPHOBICITY OF SOME N-ALKYL DERIVATIVES OF 1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE BY REVERSED-PHASE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
    Kepczyn'ska E., Bojarski J., Bojarski A.J.
    Chem. Anal. (Warsaw), 43, 575, 1998

    Hydrophobic properties of 29 N-akyl derivatives of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline were assessed by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and the results were correlated with theoretically calculated partition coefficients and affinities at 5-HTlA receptors.


    STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY STUDIES OF GLYCINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS, PART 3: STRUCTURE AND CONFORMATION OF ETHYL-N- [(5 ,5-DIPHENYL)-4-OXO-2-IMIDAZOLIDYL]GLYCINATE
    Karolak-Wojciechowska 3., Mrozek A., Kwiatkowski W., Ksi4zek W., Kiec'-Kononowicz K., Handzlik 3.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 447, 1998, 89-96

    As part of our investigation of compounds with potential affinity to the glycine binding site of MNDA receptors the structure of ethyl-N-[(5,5-diphenyl)-4-oxo-2-imidazolidyliglycinate is reported: C19H 19N 30 3; orthorombic; P2i2i2i; a=10.273(2), b=l0.309(2), c=16.721(3) A; V-i 770.8(6) A3; Z=4; ~CuK~)=l.54178 A; ~--0.7l mm~1, final R=0.053 for the amino ester chain and their impact on the binding to the glycine binding site of MNDA receptors are discussed.


    ON CONTINUITY OF INTEGRATION METHODS FOR AUC. ANOTE
    Jawien' W.
    Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharrnaceutics, Vol.26, No.1, 1998

    A lack of monotoni city and discontinuity of some integration methods for AUC, as a function of measured concentration, is demonstrated. Hybrid methods consisting of either parabolas-through-the-origin or the ~-function method followed by the log-trapezoidal method were found to be discontinuous at the switching point. the stable piecewise third-over polynomial method appeared to be nonmonotonic as well as discontinuous.


    SYNTHESIS AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF SOME 2-N-(PHTHALIMIDO)- 1 -ALKYL ESTERS
    Marona H., Kiec'-Kononowicz K.
    Pharmazie 53, 1998, 9

    Synthesis and physicochemical properties of new 2-N-(phthalimido)- 1 -alkyl esters are described. Esters were synthesized from aromatic and heterocyclic acids with appropriate bromoalkyl phthalimides in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5 ,4,0]-undec-7-ene or triethylamine. The obtained compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. The display protection against MSE and ScMet-induced seizures.


    SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF 5-CHLOROARYLIDENE AROMATIC DERIVATIVES OF IMIDAZOLINE-4-ONE
    Kiec'-Kononowicz K., Szyman'ska E., Motyl M., Holzer W., Bialecka A., Kasprowicz A.
    Pharmazie 53, 1998,10

    The synthesis of new chlorobenzylidene substituted derivatives of hydantoin and their antimicrobial activity is reported. The structure-activity relationship showed that the antibacterial effect of investigated compounds depends on the distance of the phenyl ring from the amine residue and the kind of substitutes on the phenyl ring. In the investigated group of derivatives, 5-(2-chlorobezylidene)-2-(4-fluorobenzylamine)-imidazoline-4-one and 5-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-2-(2-phenylethylamine)-imidazoline-4-one showed the bets antibacterial activity against Moraxella catarrhalis.


    SYNTHESIS AND ACTIVITY OF HIV PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    Garrouste P., Pawlowski M., Tonnaire T., Sicsic S., Dumy P., de Rosny E., Reboud-Ravaux M., Fulcrand P., Martinez J. Eur. J.
    Med. Chem. 1998, 33, 423-436

    We report here the synthesis and activity of HIV protease inhibitors. In the first stage hydrophobic compounds incorporating a 'carba' bond surrogate or a beta-homologated residue were synthesized. Secondly, we synthesized cyclic compounds in which we incorporated 2-quinoline carboxylic acid in the P3 position and the amino-hydroxyindane moiety in the P'3. The last part of this work was dedicated to a structure/activity study of a peptide substrate. These modifications allowed us to work up the synthesis of new pseudopeptide bonds: amino-amide and hydroxy-amide. Com~ounds with activity in the micromolar range were actually a starting point for the synthesis of new protease inhibitors.


    VANADIUM LEVELS IN FRENCH AND CALIFORNIAN WINES: INFLUENCE ON VANADIUM DIETARY INTAKE
    Teissedre P. L., Krosniak M., Portet K., Gasc F., Waterhouse A. L., Serrano 3.3., Cabanis 3. C., Cros G.
    Food Additives and Contaminants, 1998, vol.15, 585-591

    An accurate and reproducible method for direct determination of vanadium (V) in wine using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is described. A total of 68 wine samples from different regions of France and California were analysed. Vanadium levels ranged from 7.0 to 90.0 ~g/l in red and from 6.6 to 43.9 ~g/l in white wines. The contribution of wine consumption to daily vanadium dietary intake of the French population was estimated to be 11 ~g/day per individual.


    LEAD AND CADMIUM IN THE HAIR AND BLOOD OF CHILDREN FROM A HIGHLY INDUSTRIAL AREA IN POLAND
    Chlopicka 3., Zachwieja Z., Zagrodzki P., Frydrych 3., Slota P., Kros'rnak M.
    Biological Trace Elements Research, 62, 229-234, 1998

    The study covered the children living in Miasteczko Slaskie, near the largest Zn plant in Poland. This is the one of the areas highly contaminated with heavy metals. The subjects were 158 children aged from 8 to 15 (98 boys and 60 girls). The average Pb and Cd levels in the hair of the entire children population was 8.21+5.59 ~g/g, and 0.91+0.61 ~g/g, and the average Pb and Cd levels in their blood were 14.32 +3.98 and 0.52+0.24 ~g/dL , respectively. A correlation between the concentrations of these metals in the studied materials was confirmed.


    NPY Y1 ANTAGONISTS: STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF ARGININE DERIVATIVES AND HYBRID COMPOUNDS WITH ARPROMIDINE-LIKE STRUCTURES
    Aiglstorfer I., Uffrecht A., Gessele K., Moser C., Schuster A., Merz S., Malawska B., Bernhardt G., Dove S., Buschauer A.
    Regulatory peptides (Special Issue ,,NPY") 75-76, 9-21, 1998

    Hybrid compounds were syntesized combining the argininamides backbone of BIBP 3226 (compound with high NPY Y1 receptor affinity and selectivity) or partial structures derived from the C-terminal dipeptide of NPY with characteristic substructures of arpromidine- or amide-type NPY antagonists. SAR study indicated the role of two basic groups, the role of the OH group and supporting the model proposed for the interaction of BIBP 3226 with the Y1 receptor.


    DETERMINATION OF THE LIPOPHILICITY OF SOME N-SUBSTITUTED AMIDES OF ~-PIPERAZINE-y-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID
    Maawska B.
    J. PlanarChromatogr. 11,137-140,1998

    The lipophilicities of sixteen N-substituted amides of a piperazine~y~hydroxybutyflc acid have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and the acetic acid as the solvent system. The partition coefficients (log P) of amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RMO and log P enabled calculation of clog P values.


    EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON THE ELIMINATION KINETICS OF PYRENE AND THE URINARY EXCRETION PROFILE OF 1-HYDROXYPYRENE IN THE RAT
    Lipniak-Gawlik M.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 55:503-516, 1998

    The elimination kinetics of pyrene in rats after intravenously coadministration with fluoranthene and benz[a]anthracene were studied. The toxicokinetic parameters were determined. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion was analysed after pretreatment with some PAHs. Most compounds examined caused a changes in toxicokinetic of pyrene and the urinary excretion of the metabolite of pyrene.


    STARVATION AND HIGH-FAT DIET INCREASE THE EXPRESSION OF SPECIFIC PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE ISOENSYMES IN RAT LIVER AND SKELETAL MUSCLE
    Wu P., Jas'kiewicz J., Inskeep K., Sato J., Popov K. M., Harris R. A.
    The Faseb Journal, abstract 575, vol.12,8, 1998

    The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is regulated by phosphorylation in a tissue specific manner by four different pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Unique tissue distribution and kinetic characteristics of these kinases provide tissue-specific regulation of the complex. This study investigated whether metabolic conditions known to alter the activity and phosphorylation state of the PDH complex have specific effects upon the expression levels of PDK isoenzymes in rat liver and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius). Immunoblot analysis revealed marked increases in the amount of PDK4 in skeletal muscle and of both PDK2 and PDK4 in liver of starved rats. Refeeding starved rats reversed these increases in PDK isoenzymes amounts. Starvation likewise increase the abundance of PDK4 mRNA in skeletal muscle and the abundance of both PDK2 and PDK4 mRNA in liver. Refeeding was again effective in reversing these changes. Pronounced increase of PDK4 protein and message level were also found in skeletal muscle but not in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, starvation and high-fat diet induce tissue-specific overexpression of PDK isoenzymes that leads to greater PDK activity, increased phosphorylation and therefore lower activity of the PDH complex. These findings indicate that regulation of expression of PDK isoenzyme is an important control mechanism for long-term control of the activity of the PDH complex in rat liver and skeletal muscle.


    STARVATION AND DIABETS INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE ISOENZYME 4 IN RAT HEART
    Wu P., Sato J., Zhao Y., Jas'kiewicz 3., Popov K. M., Harris R.
    Biochem. 3., 1998, 329, 197-201

    This study investigated whether conditions known to alter the activity and phosphorylation state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex have specific effects of the levels of the isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in rat heart. Immunoblot analysis revealed a remarkable increase in the amount of PDK4 in the hearts of rats that had been starved or rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Refeeding of starved rats and insulin treatment of diabetic rats very effectively reversed the increase in PDK4 protein and restored PDK enzyme activity to levels of chow-fed control rats. Starvation and diabetes also markedly increased the abundance of PDK4 mRNA, and refeeding and insulin treatment reduced levels of the message to that of controls. In contrast with the findings for PDK4, little or no changes in the amounts of PDK1 and PDK2 protein and the abundance of their messages occurred in response to starvation and diabetes on heart PDK activity. The results indicate that control of the amount of PDK4 is important in long-term regulation of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in rat heart.


     



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